Every living thing on earth requires water to survive. Life is impossible without water. You need water for drinking, cooking, cleaning, irrigation, and other daily activities. The water cycle maintains the balance of water on the surface of the heart.
On average, every person gets about 50 liters of water every day. However, some areas don’t receive the right quantity of water. One of the effects of this imbalance is the development of droughts and floods.
Effects and Causes of Floods
Each area receives its own amount of rainfall. Some areas tend to receive a balanced amount of water, but others receive higher amounts of rainfall. For instance, semi-arid areas receive rain for one or two weeks every year. At the same time, some areas receive rain every week throughout the year. Although this may be a big relief to areas affected by dry summers, heavy rains may also come with some disadvantages. Heavy and excess rainfall raises the level of water in rivers, lakes, and oceans. The dangerous accumulation of water on river banks and ocean shores may result in floods.
Floods can lead to many problems. For instance, floods can damage agricultural activities. Additionally, the accumulation of water on farmlands and greenhouses changes the composition of the soil. Plants are unable to absorb enough water from the ground, causing them to wither and die.
Floods have caused structural damage to homes, offices, roads, and bridges. Excessive rainfall can flood an entire estate, making the houses in that area inhabitable. The residents of that area will be forced to move to a new place while the water levels subside. Even after the water level has receded, the house’s structural integrity may have been affected. The owners of the houses may have to construct new houses.
In some cases, floods have been known to carry away domestic animals. Unlike humans, animals don’t know how to care for themselves during a flood. Domestic animals, as well as wild animals, are at risk of being carried away and drowned.
Since most bridges run across rivers, they are usually the most affected section of public infrastructure. Bridges are normally swept away when a river bursts its banks. As a result, movement from areas that have been affected by floods becomes difficult and almost impossible. The cost of repairing the swept away bridges can run into billions and may take months or even years.
In some extreme cases, floods have been known to lead to the loss of lives. In underdeveloped areas, people have real or no ways of predicting the next flood. If a flood occurs, these people are usually cut off guard and are unable to respond quickly. Even in areas where there is enough infrastructure to detect and respond to a flood, surprises, and mistakes happen. All these unfortunate events lead to the loss of human lives.
Effects of Droughts
Excess rainfall is a problem, but inadequate rainfall is also a major disaster. Plants need sufficient water for transpiration, evaporation, and osmosis. If the soil does not contain enough water, these plants will die. Most of the water that is eventually used by plants is provided via rainfall.
Drought conditions have many negative effects. The most obvious one is that plants are not able to thrive. Lack of plant growth reduces the amount of available food and can lead to famine. Therefore, droughts are commonly associated with famine and death. Ultimately, the lower levels of food in a particular region can lead to human conflict, war, and civil strife.
Drought conditions also lead to human migration from the area that has water shortages. This may lead to underpopulation in one area and overpopulation in another area. In some cases, people may be forced to move to areas currently being occupied by wildlife. If this happens, the wildlife population in that area declines.
Drought conditions can also lead to extinction. Some animal species cannot move from an area that has been hit by drought. As a result, some species are forced to evolve or die. Some can’t adapt to these conditions and are consequently eliminated from the ecosystem.
Every place on the planet requires the right amount of water to avoid droughts and floods. Advancement in technology and innovation has led to the discovery of new methods. These methods will be valuable in reducing instances of droughts and floods.